Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells: III.Observation on ultracentrifugation as inverse process of central action of gravitation
(*Continued from previous Blog “Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells: II. Observations on gravitation induced mechanical movement of macromolecules)
III. Observation on ultracentrifugation as inverse process of central action of gravitation
Background of centrifugation
Ribosomal particles of eukaryotic cells are isolated from cell lysates by ultracentrifugation. Cesium salts are used as mediums of density gradient centrifugation for DNA recovery and purification, as buoyant density of DNA is considered equal to cesium. The guanine and thymine, monomer units of DNA are weak acids. Because of the large mass and high effective “density” of a Cs+ ion, the buoyant density in a CsCl gradient of a polymer acid is to be increased by a partial alkaline titration with CsOH. Most interesting part of the protocol is that separation of biomaterials is finally achieved through ultracentrifugation. Swedish chemist Theodor Svedberg6 in 1925 developed the ultracentrifuge and won 1926 Nobel Prize in chemistry, through which sub cellular materials, cells, large macromolecules like nucleic acids, proteins, ribosomes are now separated from a solution. Depending on rotor speed of centrifugation (in anti-clockwise direction) and viscosity of the medium, various forces like centrifugal, inertial, gravitational, buoyant and frictional forces work between particles and solutions. Centrifugal acceleration is given as rω2; where r is the radial distance from the rotation axis and ω is the angular velocity in radians per second. Sedimentation coefficients, expressed using Svedberg unit (symbol S) depends on mass, density, size, and shape. It is the ratio of the speed of a substance in a centrifuge to its acceleration in comparable units. When area is bigger, say, a folded paper, if allowed to drop would reach its terminal velocity higher than the velocity of the same unfolded paper, as the area of the former would be larger and the friction force acting on it would be higher. In centrifugation, objects with larger surface area will travel at a slower terminal velocity. Here question lies, why Svedberg choose centrifugation as process of separation of biomaterials and not any chemical or other physical methods to separate in dispersed colloidal systems? In gravitational terms, ‘centrifugation of any mass is an inverse process of central attraction’. The Svedberg values basically tell us about the comparative molecular weight and shape of biomaterials under ex vivo condition.
Material and Methods
Bacteria and eukaryotes have ribosomes that are structurally different. Bacteria have so-called 70S ribosomes and eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes. However, it is admitted fact that the ribosomes and their sub-particles are heterogeneous accretion. They are named according to their sedimentation characteristics during centrifugation. The ribosomes subunits are named 60S and 40S for their “size” in Svedberg units for eukaryotes. In prokaryotes (bacteria), these are 30S and 50S. These subunits are made up of three forms of rRNA: 16S, 23S, and 5S. For bacterial ribosomes, ultracentrifugation yields intact ribosomes (70S) as well as separated ribosomal subunits, the large subunit (50S) and the small subunit (30S). Within cells, ribosomes normally exist as a mixture of joined and separate subunits. The largest particles (whole ribosomes) sediment nears the bottom of the tube, whereas the smaller particles (separate 50S and 30S subunits) appear in upper fractions. Svedberg values are depicted as 1x g. The symbol g is considered as relative centrifugal force; where relative means normalized to the acceleration due to gravity on earth g = 9.81 m/s^2. One Svedberg (S) unit is 10-13. That is, a 1S particle travels a distance of at the rate of 10-13 m s-1 or 0.1 picometer per second. Particles with higher values of S will travel proportionately faster, and increasing g force will also increase sedimentation rate. The two eukaryotic ribosomal subunits have sedimentation coefficients of 40 x 10-13 and 60 x 10-13, are referred to as the 40S and the 60S ribosomal subunits. The molecular mass of the 40S and 60S particles are 1.5 and 3.0 million g/mol, respectively. Thus, the complete heterogeneous ribosome has a mass of approximately 4.5 million g/mol.
Results and discussion
Under the influence of an acceleration of a million gravities (107 m/s2), a substance with a sedimentation coefficient of 80S (80×10−13 s) would travel at 80 micrometers per second (80×10−6 m/s). Now, say, an 80S ribosome at 100 000 g centrifugation over the sucrose cushion buffer; the rate of sedimentation is equal to 10-13 x 105 x 80 m per sec or 80 x 10-8 m s-1. In order to travel, say, 10 cm (10-2 m), it would take 10-2/ (80 x 10-8) s i.e. approximately 8.5 hour. It means that 80⋅10−13 sec is the time that ribosome would take to reach the terminal velocity in the fluid under ex vivo condition. Earlier, under in vitro situation, we have demonstrated that free fall acceleration to the tune of nanometer per second square in an isolated living mass of the picometer distance. Under ex vivo situation, for moving 10 cm distance at a speed of 80 micrometers per second, 80S ribosome is taking approximately 8 hours 30 minutes. It may be considered as approximate matching between in vitro and ex vivo observations, thereby indicating that both the process have their origin from same sources, first one is on natural setting and second one is on ‘inverse or reverse setting’. Pre-centrifugation materials under in vitro situation are arranged as per density gradient influenced by the complex gravitation field ‘within the cell’. Post-centrifugation order of succession depicts ex vivo sedimentation or setting as per external gravitational or mutual fields. Centrifugation facilitates reversing the process for separation of organelles on losing its compression memory under ex vivo condition. Gravitation is slow but steady in its action, compared to electro-magnetic or electrostatic forces. Due to its slow rate of action, gravity could generally evade one’s attention, especially amid electrostatic field. Detection or undertaking quantitative measures for gravity is still a matter of challenge before physicists at the level of millimeter scale. So at this state of affairs, only way to establish is to apply abductive reasoning on bringing various circumstantial evidences.
Illustration 4. Centrifugation facilitates reversing the process for separation of organelles on losing its compression memory under ex vivo condition. Pre-centrifugation materials under in vitro situation are arranged as per density gradient influenced by the complex gravitation field ‘within the cell’. Post-centrifugation order of succession depicts ex vivo sedimentation or setting as per external gravitational or mutual fields.
(All previous Blogs on “Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells”)
In this paper, we examined the purpose of presence of extra-ordinary quantity (> 60%) of fluid in biological mass, say in cell or in organism. Biomass gets scope to grow in proportion to buoyancy. Under neutral buoyant condition, mass remains same, but weight gets reduced. Gravitational acceleration, as worked out, would be to the tune of nanometer per second square at picometer distance in secluded living mass. It is reflected as ‘planet within planet’ situation. Gravitation within living cell is an undeniably significant force. It may take a longer duration not in terms of seconds, but in terms of hours (assuming, say, 4 – 90 hours) to accomplish its assigned job of tangible pulling one centimeter distance. Therefore gravitational force remains intangible to the observer. Mechanical movement and localization of various macromolecules including nucleic acid, proteins, ribosomes, fats in eukaryotes cell as well as organelles like rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum were conceptualized to be of gravitation induced. Natural and commonly known standard settings were looked into, leaving point by point situations that may perturb the general settings for future in-depth analysis. Nucleic acid having higher molar mass and density remains in dynamic core position, proteins being intermediate over fats and lipids get distributed away from dynamic core in general. These were conjectured on gravitation principles – ‘higher the mass and the density- higher would be the attractive force of gravitation’ or in reverse way, ‘lesser would delay the attraction’. Ultracentrifugation, as commonly used to separate bio-particles on Svedberg unit, was considered to be as the ‘inverse process of central action of gravitation’. Centrifugation facilitates reversing the process for separation of organelles on losing its compression memory under ex vivo condition. Rate of sedimentation under ex vivo condition approximately matches in vitro movements. For understanding the realm of gravitation in the living cell, horizon deserves to be extended in terms of “present”, “absent” or “indifferent” gravitation. Presence of gravitation would have to be felt only through ‘observant mind’ empowered with the knowledge on fundamental principles of gravitation; else gravitation would continue to be overlooked in life science.
(All previous Blogs on “Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells”)
- Bhattacharjee I.R. Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science. Lambert Academic Publishing (2013) ISBN 978-3-659-42698-8.
- Junwu Mu, John C Slevin, Dawei Qu, Sarah McCormick, and S Lee Adamson: In vivo quantification of embryonic and placental growth during gestation in mice using micro-ultrasound Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008; 6: 34. Published online 2008 August 12. doi: 1186/1477-7827-6-34 PMCID: PMC2527569
- Hung Mien-Chie, Wolfgang Link. Protein localization in disease and therapy. J Cell Sci124:3381-3392;doi:10.1242/jcs.089110. http://jcs.biologists.org/content/124/20/3381#page
- Bhattacharjee IR. Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science (Part I). WebmedCentral BIOPHYSICS 2013;4(6):WMC004279 http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/4279
- Gutt, Gary Michael. The physics of granular systems. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1989 California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05302007-081951
- Pedersen KO. The development of Svedberg’s ultracentrifuge. Biophys Chem. 1976 Jul;5(1-2):3-18. PubMed PMID: 786403.
Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells: II. Observations on gravitation induced mechanical movement of macromolecules
(*Continued from previous Blog “Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells: I. Observations on buoyant gravitational acceleration )
Observations on gravitation induced mechanical movement of macromolecules
External fluid stresses, internal driving moments, and passive elastic resistance are generally considered as the primary cause of swimming of macromolecules over fluids. Pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure variations (initial differences) remain the same, as per Pascal’s law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure. Gravity is an all time force – slow but steady. Omnipresent but slow moving gravitation works similar to tortoise of the popular story ‘The Hare and The Tortoise’. Unless variation in gravitational forces gets accounted, surface tension and hydrodynamic forces would appear to remain prominent. Say, if there is no resistance, equal and opposite bounding force, there would not have been an unbalanced pressure to exert. Our feet move due to action of unbalanced force over the ground out of resistance. Compressive action is needed to create unbalance pressure. Elastic force cannot be a substitution for gravitational force. So let us analyze movement of various macromolecules through lens of gravitation.
Materials and Methods
Living cell is a complex structure. The typical size of prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea) cell is ~ 1–5 µm where as eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants, animals) cell is ~ 10–100 µm. The comparatively bigger size eukaryotes have various organelles like cell nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts; endoplasmic reticulum; golgi apparatus; lysosomes, peroxisomes; centrosome; vacuoles compared to smaller size prokaryotes, that are simpler in terms organelles. In prokaryotes, there is no true nucleus, only nucleoid region – RNA/protein synthesis is coupled in the cytoplasm. Here a word of note. We are not considering any specific situation, where multiple forces are in action. For clarity of present study, we had limited our observation on eukaryotes and that too only cell nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum among various organelles on their commonly known standard positions.
Results and discussions
Localization based on molar mass and density
Among the various macromolecules, as available in eukaryotes cells, nucleic acids have highest accretion of molar mass (say, 1000 – 5,000,000 g/mol) as well as density. Naturally, under gravitational (self) environment, nucleic acids would remain in the core position on the principle ‘higher the mass and density- higher would be the attractive force of self gravity’. Whole genome in the three-dimensional folded structure of DNA, if fully laid out would be around 6 feet long, but these fit into the nuclei of each of cells in human body. The traditional accretion of nucleic acid under tightly packed condition at the dynamic central position of cell demonstrates presence of compressive central force of gravitation. Proteins are intermediate in accretion of molar mass (say, 75 – 180 g/ mol) as well as higher density (say, 1.1 -1.4 g/ml), compared to molar mass of water molecule of only 18 g/mol. So it remains traditionally in the cytosol away from dynamic nucleus. Fats and lipids, though of comparable accretion of molar mass (say, 88 – 280 g/ mol) as that of proteins, but their accretions consist of lowest density (say, 0.8 – 0.9 g/ml). On obeying universal gravitational law, fats and lipids would naturally find place in the dynamic periphery with passage of time (with exception due to local effect) – in the cell membrane and similar other peripheral locations due to their lowest density, as per principle ‘lesser the density of accreted material, there would be delay in gravitational attraction to the centre’.
Gravitation induced localization of nucleic acid / protein
If we look at the various location of macromolecules popularly known under ‘central dogma of molecular biology’, it is interesting to note that replication of DNA (DNA – > DNA polymerase) and transcription of DNA to RNA (DNA – > RNA polymerase) traditionally occurs in the dynamic nucleus and translation of RNA to Protein (Ribosome) occurs in the cytoplasm away from the dynamic nucleus in the eukaryotic cell. Various exceptions for dynamic change of position with time were deliberately omitted to avoid detraction of attention from focus of the topic. Most characteristic as well as distinctive property of gravitation is that all its mass under influence would appear to be concentrated at the centre of mass (popularly known as centre of gravity). Molar mass of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA) is higher than protein including ribosome. Ribosomes are large complexes of RNA and protein. Ribosomes are composed of two complex subunits, each of which includes rRNA and protein components. Volume of nucleic acid is comparatively less than protein. Therefore potential energy of gravitation could move dynamic nucleic acid to the central position.
Protein localization is important in disease and therapy3. We had earlier elaborated protein folding4 in context of gravitation. So here we are not dealing various such dynamic complexities of proteins, except to mention that protein translation is confined to the cytosol and protein synthesis take place either on free RNA ribosomes or on ribosomes associated with the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).
Localization of Endoplasmic reticulum with or without ribosomes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) is coated with Ribosome. Ribosome is of higher molar mass than materials in endoplasmic reticulum. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is found to be distributed throughout the cell but its density is higher near the dynamic nucleus or core. On the other hand, Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum (SER), not studded with ribosomes, remains lighter and is found away from the dynamic core towards periphery. SER is associated with comparatively less dense fats (Illustration 4). The presence of higher weight ribosome nearer to the dynamic nucleus and association of lesser density fat away from dynamic nucleus within a living cell, thus, seems to obey the fundamental principle of universal gravitation within a eukaryotic cell.
Localization of carbohydrates
Molar mass of carbohydrates is 180 – 340 g/mol and their density is 1.4 g/ ml. Monomer carbohydrates undergo polymerization and develop into long chained polysaccharides, such as cellulose, cellobioses, starch and glycogen (animal starch). Cellulose is made up of glucose units linked by β1>4 linkages and it is an important component of cell wall. Similarly starch is also a polymer of α1-4 linked glucose units and it is the main source of energy for all living cells. The most striking feature of monomer carbohydrates is that these posses highest solubility (683 g/ L) gets miscible with protoplasm, due to which, in general, carbohydrates cannot maintain its distinct location in a gravitational field, as do nucleic acid, proteins, fats and lipids. The protoplasm is granular colloidal in nature, because many macromolecules, tiny organelles are suspended in it, also exhibits sol and gel properties. Gutt5 expressed that granular system exhibit duel properties – in a gravitational field, it may have a self-bounding free surface but also conform to the shape of the bounding wall, obeying continuum theories of fluid mechanics. As compacted granular system, it can support shear stress in absence of a shearing velocity. Application of granular physics is still at nascent stage of study in life science. There is need for in-depth study on application of granular physics in life science to advance further on carbohydrate and other macromolecular movements.
Aforesaid description is typically based on simplifying assumptions. There may be gravity anomalies out of local variations of the gravity field involving the effect of immediate local accretion of masses in the vicinity. Also in chronological event driven phenomena, hydrostatic pressure increases with depth inside the surrounding matrix on being bounded by the peripheral structure. Nucleus region then gets drifted outward from central region with increase in size, reflecting an eccentricity of the core in a dynamic orienting system of coordinates, what we call an eccentric nucleus after passing of phase.
(*Continued to next Blog “Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells: III.Observation on ultracentrifugation as inverse process of central action of gravitation)
Gravitation induced mechanical movement in cells – I. Observations on buoyant gravitational acceleration
Mass remain same but weight get reduced under neutral buoyant condition of biomass.
From giant universe to tiny microscopic bacteria, though materials for constitution differs, there is one phenomenon that is common to all – “Balance is the law of life”. In giant star, internal pressure opposes self gravity. Radiant energy generate due to balance between outward internal pressure and inward gravitational pressure- keeps sun shining. In living organism outward metabolic energy opposes inward invisible force of self gravity (as per concept of Self Gravitation Bio). Life continues so long balance is maintained. So “keep balance”- that is the universal rule to survive.
Biologists have noticed such balance (positive & negative equilibrium) terming it as homeostatis. Self gravitation bio defines such homeostatis through cross-disciplinary approach viz. positive & negative balance between metabolic energy and self gravitational energy as the ‘life’.
Biological growth means either an increase in number of cells (hyperplasia) or increase in cell size (hypertrophy). Irrespective of expression, growth means increase in mass. However, growth do not occur in uniform arithmetic progression – there is retardation in the percentage increase. The per cent rate of growth is afterwards slowed down in spite of best nutrient supplementation. Say a day one chick in embryo weighs 0.002 grams, on 7th day, it attains 0.57 gram and at day 14 and 20, it attains 9.74 and 30.21 grams respectively. Subsequently at 8 weeks it weighs about 1200 grams. It is still considered a puzzling feature in developmental genetics,‘how does genome appreciate that its activities need to be slowed down after the phenotypic task is over’. To bridge the gap in scientific understanding it is postulated that phenomena is due to building up of critical level of growth limiting substance at particular period of growth. What could be the critical growth limiting factors (and not substance)?Therefore slowing down in the rate of growth by an unknown factor could be explained with the introduction of the concept of self-gravity. Gravitation force increases with increase in Newton’s mass. The gravitational mass is a ‘charge’: an object feels a gravitational force in proportion to its gravitational mass, just as it would feel an electromagnetic force in proportion to its electric charge. There would be an increase in gravitational force, for example, with increase in mass under same distance or under same mass with decrease in distance, even in miniature scale.
Latest research indicates that physical parameters like membrane surface area, pathways and cell size determine cellular growth rate. The increase in growth rate in fast-growing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus can be explained by a dominant (80%) limitation of growth by the group of membrane processes including membrane surface area. Simultaneous activation of membrane processes may be what is required to accelerate growth of the fastest-growing form of eukaryotic life and may be of potential interest for single-cell protein production. Similarly it was shown that nutrient-dependent pathway and cell size controls growth rate in the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium or Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. From both these examples of latest research findings, it is clear that membrane surface area, pathways and cell size are those that can be manipulated by a compressive physical force like self gravity could be the major deciding factor for cell growth rate.
Retardation in percent increase in growth is common to all gravitating stellar bodies of the universe, where internal pressure opposes invisible self-gravity. Miniature size of the biological bodies seems do not show hindrance to mimic gravitation phenomena. At infant stage, there would be higher metabolic energy but lesser gravitational energy. At adult stage, there would be equilibrium between metabolic and gravitational energy. At old age, there would be lesser metabolic energy and high gravitational energy. That is with accumulation of mass on passage of time, potential energy of self-gravity would starts dominating over kinetic metabolic energy, thereby limiting/ decreasing membrane surface area, pathways and cell size leading to per cent decrease in growth. Therefore, we can say that adults are in equilibrium between kinetic metabolic and potential gravitational energy where as infant and old are in non-equilibrium stage- former with higher kinetic metabolic energy and lesser potential gravitational energy and later is in its opposite.
For more details see my book: Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science or in Journal Webmedcentral.com (a) Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science (Part I) http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/4279 (b) Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science (Part II). http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/4296.
- Generation of ‘muscle tone’ remains elusive in human physiology
Muscle tone or background tensions remain elusive in human physiology. In the book “Fundamentals of Neurophysiology” Robert F. Schmidt pointed out that “Summation of the twitches of many fibers, excited asynchronously at low frequencies up to 5/second, generates a total force that does not fluctuate very much, with amplitude that must be approximately proportional to the average frequency of excitation. The ‘background’ tension produced in this way by summation of the twitches of many fibers is called tone. All the muscles in a living organism possess such tone. Even in a relaxed limb, the motor nerves are activated at low frequency.” Gray’s Anatomy empirically denies existence of muscle tone, as it doesn’t show up on an electromyography. But Gray’s anatomy admitted that an electromyograph can’t pick up low level, steady-state action unless the motor units immediately adjacent to the contact are firing. It just reads as background noise. Other authors postulate that there is an inherent elasticity in the muscles, and still others talk about muscle tone but don’t have a clear picture of what it is. Interestingly no one denies existence of static and balanced. It is stated that tone works 24 hours a day. What force would make it functional continuously? The nerve impulse is primarily an electrical event. Each neuron is like a tiny biological battery ready to be discharged. It requires to be charged constantly. As life process starts with accumulation of mass, upon which force of gravity naturally works for 24 hours without any external inputs. Can it be responsible for subtle tone in a body? Let us examine the issue in little details.
- ‘Build-up’ & ‘break-down’ mechanisms in living mass
There are two inverse-square central forces such as the gravitational or electrostatic potential. Gravitational fields have the same range as electromagnetic fields. The gravitational field is much weaker than the electromagnetic field. The positive and negative charges of the electromagnetic field tend to compensate each other’s fields. But masses are not compensated for which gravitational force cannot be compensated. However notice to gravitational force gets evaded. But when there could be a difference in the quantity of mass within a span of time, manifestation in the variation of gravitational binding energy1 according to gravitational mass would be spectacular. Let us note that non-living objects have got no ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ mechanisms of carbohydrates in mass. It is static mass. In living objects, on the other hand, there is change of mass through ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ mechanism of carbohydrates 2. It is a unique character that operates in regular manner in all living objects. Photosynthesis and respiration are two alternate processes in plants wherein photosynthesis means gain (‘build-up’) in biomass whereas carbohydrates expended during respiration and growth is loss (‘break-down’) of mass per unit area. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) plays a central role in ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ mechanism process of mass in all living organisms. Thus it can be seen that in non-living matter, mass remains constant whereas in living matters quantity of mass in the form body weight and composition (density) gets changed with the changes in the state of energy in the form of biochemical products and with the gain or release of temperature.
- Spectacular action of self gravity in muscle tone while living and not when dead
Now let us see what would happen if there is loss and gain in living mass along with time in a self gravitating environment. The change in mass in a membrane bound self gravitating close structured living objects would cause change in gravitational binding energy resulting into a source of potential energy as well as inertia. Metabolic energy primarily acts as source of kinetic energy. This would create a tension within the mass say, in the muscles fibers, vessels etc. making these lengthened followed by shortened, or tight followed by loose, or stretched followed by slack, or firm followed by flaccid, rigid or tautness followed by flexible and so on, as per location and structural anatomy of the particular vessel or muscle. This alternate movement might manifest as beats, or excited asynchronously at low frequencies in addition to increase or decrease in potential gravitational compression and kinetic relaxation energy due to inertia plus metabolic energy. Such variation in the internal pressure due to variation in potential and kinetic energy might be the source of power for giving non-neural background tension or tone to the body. However this would be an interesting area of research for biophysicists.
- There is no complete loss of tone during paralysis
Let us cite few examples below to show how generation of muscle tone or background tension remains an elusive till date. Paralysis is the loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism. Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. It takes about one-thousandth of a second for a neuron to fire an impulse and return to its resting level. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons have a constant rate of firing under normal conditions. This is also called their “tone”, but of neural origin. It maintains the normal rate of heartbeat, keeps blood pressure within a normal range and maintain homeostasis. Of course, the sympathetic and parasympathetic firing rate changes greatly during fight-or-flight responses. Paralyzed muscle may be flaccid, flabby, and without appreciable tone, or it may be spastic, tight, and with abnormally high tone that increases when the muscle is moved. But most interesting fact is that there is no complete loss of background tone during paralysis. Complete loss of tone is only available with death.
- Tone is lost after death during pallor mortis and not while living
As per Law of Laplac 3,
T= p x r / (2 x t) (1)
where T= ‘wall tension’, p = pressure, r = radius, t = wall thickness. For a given pressure, increased radius requires increased wall thickness to accommodate a stable ‘wall tension’; also, increased pressure requires increased thickness to maintain a stable ‘wall tension’. The Law of Laplace explains various phenomena encountered in the pathology of vascular or gastrointestinal walls. The ‘wall tension’ is said to represent the muscular tension on the wall of the vessel. But how far it is true? Who controls the ‘wall tension’ is not yet meticulously studied taking into account the presence of self gravity. Break down of ‘wall tension’ is conspicuous only after death. We will discuss the issue in subsequent paragraphs.
Generally the tone is said to be ‘regulated’ (decreased or increased) by virtue of sympathetic and parasympathetic supply. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) operates without conscious control, relying upon reflex arcs that are dependent upon hypothalamus and medulla for overriding control. Autonomic nerve fibers innervate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. Through these fibers the ANS said to play a role in regulating blood pressure and flow, gastrointestinal movements and secretions, body temperature, bronchial dilation, blood glucose levels, metabolism, micturition and defecation, pupillary light and accommodation reflexes, and glandular secretions, just to name a few. A mechanical engineer will however view in different angle to unearth the word ‘regulation’.
For instance, geared elevator system (lift) works on a number of engineering principles. Electric motor turns the gear that rotates the sheave. A sheave is just a pulley with grooves around the circumference. Sheave grips the hoist ropes which are connected to counterweight (Illustration 1 left). It is therefore technically wrong to say, elevator is regulated by electrical force. It only regulates gear. Similarly it is incorrect to say that nervous system regulates various human physical activities. Electrostatic nervous system cannot have ‘load’ or ‘weight’ bearing capacity. It can at best act as trigger to propel a part of the mechanical system for lifting of load. It is therefore advisable to understand the mechanical system as a whole to ascertain ‘cause-effect’ relations in life science in better manner. Correspondingly a rescuer can easily drag a drowning person in water by holding his hair or bathing suit. But same thing is not possible in terrestrial environment (Illustration 1 right). Reason is obvious.
Illustration 1 . Geared elevator system or lift works on a number of engineering principles to carry load and not on simple switch ‘off’ and ‘on’ of electric motors (left). A rescuer can easily drag a drowning person in water by holding his hair (right). But same thing is not possible in terrestrial environment. In a mechanical system, nervous system of electrical origin cannot regulate transmission of load required for human physical activities.
Now let us return back to our original contention. Within minutes of the heart stopping, a process called pallor mortis 4, blood drains from the smaller veins in the skin. That is its original background tone is lost. Therefore question arises why tone is lost after heart-beating death 5, 6 during pallor mortis and not while living? Why nerve impulse fails to act when clinically dead. Loss of tone is related to potential and kinetic energy of mass. This small difference in the pathology of paralysis and death needs thorough investigation.
- Intrinsic muscle tone is constantly maintained when living but loose after death
We see that intrinsic muscle tone is maintained for 24 hours when living. After death, intrinsic muscle tone is lost. For example, due to the tone in the longitudinal muscle bundles in the gut, the length of the small intestine remains at half while living. After death gut length becomes double, say about 24 ft. During paralysis such an event is rare. At the moment of death, all of the muscles in the body relax, a state called primary flaccidity. Eyelids lose their tension, the pupils dilate, the jaw might fall open, and the body’s joints and limbs are flexible. With the loss of tension in the muscles, the skin will sag, which can cause prominent joints and bones in the body, such as the jaw or hips, to become pronounced.
- Edema occurs in lowers or dependant parts of the body after death
After 2 to 6 hours of death, external gravity begins to pull blood to the areas of the body closest to the ground, a process called livor mortis. Hypostasis or settling of blood and the dependent edema i.e. fluids in lower or dependent parts of an organ or body occurs after death. Why downward pull towards external direction? Why such severe manifestation of earth’s gravity is not pronounced while living? In fact while living, full tone could be maintained when there is a balance between potential energy of self gravity and kinetic energy of metabolism within self gravitating environment. But with loss of such equilibrium, extrinsic (earth’s) gravity could pull down fluids, blood in the direction of stronger external gravity, as described above and the organism behaves as inert on losing its tone (Illustration 2).
Illustration 2. Schematic diagram shows full tone due to balance between potential energy of self gravity and kinetic energy of metabolism (left). Tone is lost and organism behaves as inert matter out of imbalance between inner potential and kinetic energies when stronger external gravity dominates (right).
- Intuitive model on generation of ‘background tone’
Muscle tone 7 is usually defined as the amount of contraction in a resting muscle. It is a static, balanced, isometric contraction between agonist and antagonist (both internal forces) in every muscle in the body. It never lets go completely, even in sleep, when all dynamic muscle activity is gone. It operates when one does nothing. Muscle-building exercise elevates tone, can even slam it up considerably, but at whatever level the involvement of contraction, tone still remains static and constant at any given time.
It is argued that between cardiac and flat muscles, flat muscles resist becoming hypertonic. They can’t squeeze off their veins so they can’t encapsulate lactic acid. Cardiac muscle is non-spastic because it can burn lactic acid. However exhalation and inhalation mechanism is based on thin dome-shaped sheet of muscle of the thoracic diaphragm which is said to be controlled by phrenic nerve. It is to be remembered that electrostatic nervous system can regulate physiological process but when the question of bearing certain ‘load’, its controlling role would be limited. Therefore unless a mechanism similar to pneumatic system operates, simple nerve impulse cannot control movement of load. This is a gross oversight in life science.
Thoracic diaphragm is kidney shaped in outline and has the ability to contract from its edges towards its center. Its center lies horizontally across the body dividing the trunk into two compartments: the thorax (the chest) and the abdomen (the belly). The thorax contains the heart and lungs while the abdomen contains the organs of digestion. Geometrically dome shaped structure is an intercepted arc, center point of which is coinciding somewhere in the imaginary center of self gravity as per human architecture. Potential energy (compressive) of self gravity contracts the dome shape structure. Kinetic energy decompresses, thereby allowing the dome shape structure to relax. While undertaking both contracting and relaxed condition, it is maintaining a constant angle between radius from the common center and tangents (from intercepted arc), as shown in left side of the illustration (Illustration 3). Similarly, if tangents are drawn on the circumference (intercepted arc) of the balloon like inflated heart, these will also form constant angles with the radius from the center of the structure during embryonic stage 8. The alternate ‘half-bulging’ structure in the muscles is available around skeleton in the periphery on one side of a joint and end via a tendon or ligament on another side of the joint, functioned by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. If tangents are drawn over such alternate ‘half-bulging’ intercepted arc, there also constant angles can be seen between tangent and radius drawn from central position, as shown in the middle of the illustration (Illustration 3). Thus it is apparent that the basic geometrical structure of different organs/ mechanisms in human coincides with the center and related features of potential energy of self gravity (U = mgh) and kinetic energy (Ek = ½ mv2) against it. Manifestation of background low frequency ‘muscle tone’ is the interaction between self gravitational binding (potential) energy and metabolic (kinetic) energy against potential energy. Hence self gravitational potential energy balance 9, 10 needs to be worked out in human axisymmetric conﬁguration structured under stratified density of soft matter or fluids where viscous forces may play to create divergent geometry at early stage of formation.
9. “Balance is the law of life”
Under equilibrium condition between potential and kinetic energy, muscle tone would remain static and balanced from center to periphery. Under non-equilibrium condition, especially due to disproportionate build-up of mass, self gravitational tone or background tension would increase from periphery to the center, leading to various collapse in living mechanism. The close relation between obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome 11, 12 may be cited as an example. Thus we find that “balance is the law of life”, though we are to move with unbalanced potential energy with the kinetic energy.
Illustration 3 Intuitive schematic diagram showing maintenance of constant angle between radius from the common center and tangents over intercepted arcs from central angle (right) on dome shaped thoracic diaphragm with potential and kinetic energy (left), balloon-like heart at central position and alternate ‘half-bulging’ structure in the skeletal muscles in the periphery with potential and kinetic energy (middle).
It is interesting to note that gravitational waves works like water, sound and electromagnetic waves and is able to carry energy, momentum, and angular momentum from their sources. Very low frequency waves may be impossible to detect but it seems that there is some indirect evidence for its existence. For instance logarithmic spiral 13 is also known as the growth spiral, equiangular spiral or spira mirabilis. The length of the radius goes on increasing with the shell. The logarithmic spiral has the unique property of maintaining a constant angle between the radius and the tangent at any point on the curve (Illustration 4). This spiral is related to Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, or golden spiral in snails, snakes and others. Unless mechanism of potential energy of self gravity versus kinetic energy of metabolism is not brought into the scenario, formation of logarithmic spirals in nature will continue to remain elusive.
Illustration 4. In logarithmic spiral (left), tangent to any point on the curve maintains constant angle (in red) with the radius. Magnitude of potential energy of self gravity goes on decreasing from center to the periphery whereas higher magnitude of outward kinetic energy (in yellow) could make radius of curvature lengthened (in blue) leading to logarithmic spiral phenomena in various living creatures like snail (right), snake and others.
From all these evidences we can confidently say that potential energy of self gravity and kinetic energy of metabolism are the two diagonally opposite forces work in a living organism or say human body while living. Living organisms could move due to unbalanced kinetic energy working against potential gravitation energy of the self gravity. Under astrophysical principles, equation of hydrostatic equilibrium (first equation) states that Sun (or a star) is held in equilibrium under the opposing forces of self gravity and internal pressures. Self gravity has the tendency to shrink the Sun, whereas internal pressures tend to expand it. The second equation describes how the mass of the Sun is related to the density. The third equation, known as equation of state, connects the pressure to temperature and density. The overall effect of these equations states that Sun works as a sphere of gas with high temperature in the center that progressively decreases outward. The fourth equation describes how the radiation generated in the hot inner regions is progressively absorbed as it moves outward. The energy conversions as per contraction hypothesis of Kelvin and Helmholtz states that self gravitational energy is transformed into kinetic energy and thereafter it is transformed into radiation energy. Thus it is said that the Sun shines because of its self-gravity. Thus we can say that same basic principles of Kelvin-Helmholtz hypothesis that explains solar luminosity, can be applied in living organisms or in human body or in working of the organism/ human health glow with hale and hearty look, though material composition differ between astrophysical and biological bodies.
- Jay Dix and Robert Calaluce. Guide to Forensic Pathology. CRC Press. 1998. 43-46. ISBN 0-8493-0267-6.http://www.gwi-network.com/sites/default/files/ebooks/Guide%20to%20Forensic%20Medicine_.pdf
- Bradley R. Smith, G. Allan Johnson, Ernest V. Groman, Elwood Linney. Magnetic resonance microscopy of mouse embryos. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA Developmental Biology Vol. 91, pp. 3530-3533, April 1994. http://www.pnas.org/content/91/9/3530.full.pdf
- Rui Xin Huang and Xingze Jin. 2005. Gravitational Potential Energy Balance for the Thermal Circulation in a Model Ocean. Journal of physical oceanography vol 36. 1420-1429. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/JPO2914.1
- Mariusungarish and Herberte. Huppert. Energy balances for propagating gravity currents: homogeneous and stratiﬁed ambient. Fluid Mech. (2006), vol. 565, pp. 363–380. doi:10.1017/S0022112006001455. http://www.itg.cam.ac.uk/people/heh/Paper197.pdf
- Nabil Sulaiman & Dr Dhafir A. Mahmood. Cardiometabolic Syndrome (2)
- Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease. https://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/cray/…/Section%201%20Review.ppt
- (Read more: Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details//store/gb/book/978-3-659-42698-8/self-gravity:-the-major-investigation-gap-in-life-science)
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
A San Francisco cable car holds 60 people. This blog was viewed about 330 times in 2014. If it were a cable car, it would take about 6 trips to carry that many people.
On the other hand, ‘Self gravitation bio’ that relate intrinsic gravity in biology, distinguishing ‘self gravity’ from commonly known ‘gravity’ or in terms of physics – ‘mutual gravity’- would put forward contribution towards advancement of human knowledge to evolve simple innovative technologies for sustained knowledge on all living organisms, especially for ‘hale and hearty glow of human health’ not only on terrestrial earth but during human journey in space (microgravity) including distant planets, comets or to any corner of the universe.
During Pregnancy Don’t Ignore Buoyant Force of Fluid – Your Self Gravitating kid will die in its absence
During pregnancy don’t Ignore buoyant force of fluid in mother’s womb– Your Self Gravitating kid will die in its absence. Like Moon being separated from mother Earth, your self gravitating kid is required to be separated/ protected from external stronger gravitational attraction to keep its separate living entity. Only principles of ‘Self Gravitation Bio’ will provide the correct and reasonable answer which is missing in your text book so far.So understand principles of self gravitation bio.
Amniotic fluid index (AFI) is a rough estimate of the amount of amniotic fluid (1) in mother’s womb and is an index for the fetal well-being. It is said to be a part of the biophysical profile (Illustration 1). AFI is the score (expressed in cm) given to the amount of amniotic fluid seen on pregnant uterus and calculated by a ultrasonograph To determine the AFI, doctors may use a four-quadrant technique 2, 3, when the deepest, unobstructed, vertical length of each pocket of fluid is measured in each quadrant and then added up to the others, or the so called “single deepest pocket” technique (4). The linea nigra is used to divide the uterus into right and left halves. The umbilicus serves as the dividing point for the upper and lower halves. The transducer is kept parallel to the patient’s longitudinal axis and perpendicular to the floor. The deepest, unobstructed, vertical pocket of fluid is measured in each quadrant in centimeters 5. The four pocket measurements are then added to calculate the AFI. An AFI between 8-18 is considered normal. Median AFI level is approximately 14 from week 20 to week 35, when the amniotic fluid begins to reduce in preparation for birth. An AFI < 5-6 is considered as oligohydramnios. The exact number can vary by gestational age. The fifth percentile for gestational age is sometimes used as a cutoff value. An AFI > 20-24 is considered as polyhydramnios. What is the inner purpose of AFI?
When an object is immersed in a liquid, the liquid exerts an upward force, which is known as the buoyant force, that is proportional to the weight of the displaced liquid. The sum force acting on the object, then, is proportional to the difference between the weight of the object (‘down’ force) and the weight of displaced liquid (‘up’ force), hence equilibrium buoyancy is achieved when these two weights (and thus forces) are equal. Archimedes’ principle indicates that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. Again Pascal’s law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure variations (initial differences) remain the same. Thus depth of amniotic fluid play a vital role of separation between two gravitating bodies – self gravity of kid and mutual gravity of mother vis-a-vis planet where mother remains.
Illustration 1. Neutral buoyancy apparently secludes self gravity of macromolecules from the working of the extrinsic gravity of planet? Measurement of the largest vertical pocket is therefore indispensible for fetal health. Inner purpose of AFI is to track proper seclusion.
Under secluded gravitating environment, nanometer level free fall acceleration would be a tremendous force for femtometer size macromolecules. Let us interpolate and visualize the phenomena with some superimposed data. Literature on neutral buoyant force of amniotic fluid and utero as well as ex utero measurements is scanty. Let us concentrate our attention to the works of Junwu Mu et al (6) who made in vivo quantification of embryonic and placental growth during gestation in mice using micro-ultrasound and pair-wise comparisons of in utero and ex utero measurements. They reported that when gestational age of mice reaches 16.5 days, the non-invasive predictive body weight remains to 0.792 gm in average. The crown-rump length (CRL) and abdominal circumference (AC) was reported to be the function of gestation age (Illustration 2). The CRL and AC remain to be 16.22 mm and 23.4 mm respectively at that growth stage of mice. The average radius of the fetus can thus be considered to be roughly 9.9 mm.
Illustration 2. Pair-wise comparisons of in utero through ultrasound and ex utero measurements of CRL and abdominal circumference in mice (reproduced from Junwu Mu et al)6. .
Neutral buoyancy can apparently reduce the weight of living mass
Let us extend theoretically the fetal weight floating over amniotic fluid on the same principle of loss of brain weight in cerebrospinal fluid. Neutral buoyancy is said to be a condition in which a physical body’s density is equal to the density of the fluid in which it is immersed. This offsets the force of extrinsic gravity that would otherwise cause the object to sink. An object that has neutral buoyancy will neither sink nor rise. The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400 grams; however, the net weight of the brain suspended in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is equivalent to a mass of 25 grams i.e. what is 56 gm in human body will appear to be 1 gram only under neutral buoyant condition of the brain. The brain exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight, which would cut off blood supply and kill neurons in the lower sections without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
We know what is 6 kg on earth is 1 kg weight at moon. When a person arrives at moon, he will be acting as per external gravitational force of the moon and not as per that of earth. Accordingly a person when reaches moon feels lighter. A normal weight of a human child at birth is say 3200 gm on earth but at moon its weight would be 531 gm.
Ignoring difference in the value of neutral buoyancy in cerebrospinal and amniotic fluids, due to differential presence of salt and other matters, the neutral buoyant weight of mice embryo of 0.792 gm would appear to be 0.014gm. The acceleration due to gravity on earth is about 9.8 m/s2, whereas at moon it is 1.62 m/s2. However, if we calculate acceleration due to (self) gravity in 0.792 gram at 16 days of gestational age of mice with radius 9.9 mm, separated by neutral buoyant force, as provided by Junwu Mu et al, using standard formula g(s)= GM/R2, it comes to be about 5×10-9 m/s2. That is free fall acceleration to the tune of 5 nanometer per second square in a massive body of the planet may be negligible, but in an isolated living mass of the size 9.9 femtometer (9.9×10-12 meter), acceleration of 5 nm/s2 is quite a significant force.
Soccer is being played by all ages. Age wise, playing standard, materials, circumference or weight of ball may differ. For youth/adult, ball may be of leather having 70 cm circumference and 450 gram weight. For high school level students, circumference and weight of the ball may be reduced to 62 cm and 396 gram respectively. For kids, weight could be less than 100 grams. Everyone will play as per individual capabilities (Illustration 3). Similarly action of self gravity on earth can result an apple to fall on earth, or that of moon can cause a person to move easily when at moon. Similarly free fall acceleration at nanometer level would be tremendous for protein, fat or any macromolecule of femtometer size and should not be overlooked in tiny fetal body within its self gravitating mass. As such importance of operation of neutral buoyancy as amniotic fluid at mammalian level as mechanism for buffering pad to maintain self gravity’s free fall condition is difficult to ignore.
Illustration 3. Kids also imitate playing football by the adult
So finally we say that explanation of Dr Seuss on pregnancy (original photo/poem of Manas Spot through facebook) needs modification as shown in the illustration 4.
Illustration 4. Dr Seuss explains pregnancy- sans self gravity
References: (see more on Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details//store/gb/book/978-3-659-42698-8/self-gravity:-the-major-investigation-gap-in-life-science)
1. Tom C Winter; Sanders, Roger C. (2006). Clinical Sonography: A Practical Guide. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. p502. ISBN 0-7817-4869-0.
4. Carr, Phyllis L.; Ricciotti, Hope; Freund, Karen M.; Scott Kahan (2003). In a Page Ob/Gyn & Women’s Health (In a Page). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers. pp. p105. ISBN 1-4051-0380-9.
6. Junwu Mu, John C Slevin, Dawei Qu, Sarah McCormick, and S Lee Adamson: In vivo quantification of embryonic and placental growth during gestation in mice using micro-ultrasound Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008; 6: 34. Published online 2008 August 12. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-6-34 PMCID: PMC2527569
Genetic sophistication or morphological variation depends on mass & volume – parameters for self gravity
Genetic sophistication varies with mass and volume – parameter for self gravity
Genetic sophistication in living organisms is influenced by ‘mass and volume’, a parameter of self-gravity. In bacteria and blue-green algae, the nuclear material is not separated from the cytoplasm by a discrete membrane whereas it is so in majority of multicellular organisms. The entire virus consists primarily of viral genetic material enclosed in a proteinaceous envelope. Viroids, very small particles, appear to consist of genetic material alone and lack enclosing membranes. The prion which is about 100 times smaller than the smallest viruses, contain a spherical shell of protein only. Prion can reproduce in the living cell, yet no DNA or RNA has been found in them.
Morphological variation in living organisms also depends on mass – parameter for self gravity
As per astrophysical principles, solar mass stars (0.3–1.5 solar masses) have ‘radiative’ cores with ‘convective’ envelopes in the outer portion of the star. In massive stars (greater than about 1.5 solar masses), have a radiative envelope. The lowest mass main sequence stars have no radiation zone; the dominant energy transport mechanism throughout the star is convection. Giants are also fully convective 1.
Various transport mechanisms like ‘fountain effect’ and ‘central tendency’ in a star is dependent on the quantity of mass as per gradation of the stars as lower mass, intermediate mass and higher mass. Similarly generation of ‘fountain effect’ and ‘central tendency’ can be observed in the mesoscopic biological world, where materials are mostly soft condensed matter at the formative stage, as happened in post-formative stage of astrophysical bodies like stars.
Various circumstantial evidences support the idea, especially in case of exothermic and endothermic living organisms. Endothermic animals are able to generate their own heat to keep themselves warm while ectothermic animals rely on the sun to keep themselves warm. It is to be noted that between the terminology of physics and biology, people encounter a source of possible confusion because of historical accident. The thermodynamic terms “exothermic” and “endothermic” in physics refer to processes that give out heat energy and processes that absorb heat energy respectively, whereas in biology, the sense is effectively inverted. The metabolic terms “ectothermic” and “endothermic” respectively refer to organisms that rely largely on external heat to achieve a full working temperature, and to organisms that produce heat from within as a major factor in controlling their bodily temperature. An exothermic organism is cold- blooded and shifts in it’s body temperature depending upon the temperature of its surrounding environment, for example a fish. An endothermic organism is a warm blooded organism that maintains a certain temperature inside the body, no matter what its surrounding environments temperature is, for example humans.
So the issue of thermal convection as internal energy transport mechanism in living world based on mass deserves thorough study. In Illustration 1, we have tried (through arbitrarily pictorial means) to establish internal energy transport mechanism in living world, categorizing frog as higher mass, butterfly as intermediate mass and bacteria, amoeba as lower mass, considering convective transport mechanism from high density to low density as warmer and from low density to high density mass as cooler.
Illustration 1. Convective transport mechanism from high density to low density leads variation in internal structure and morphological symmetry. For instance frog has higher mass, butterfly intermediate and bacteria or amoeba have lower mass. In organism having smaller mass, there is no ‘fountain effect’- only ‘central tendency’ in overall structure, but in organism with intermediate mass there is fountain effect as well as central tendency. Thus it is evident that genetic sophistication or morphological variation depends on mass and volume or in other words, density – the prime parameter of operation of self gravity.